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The Immigration problem must be solved now, or else..
On the one hand you have statements like : “ours is a country of immigrants”
On the other: “ours is a country of legal immigrants”
and : “freedom for all”
and then..”we are a nation of laws“,
Yet what we really have is a serious problem that must be solved if we are to go forward.
Be certain of one thing before you read this proposal. Nothing is easy, nothing is free, nothing comes without some pain and sacrifice and there is always a cost, even for the very best of times. The solution we see is not going to be liked by everyone, in fact it may not be liked completely by anyone at all, but then this is what democratic process is about, this is what civilization is about, therefore compromise and a maximal solution to a difficult problem. This is the best that can be hoped for.
We must understand that everyone is in some way dissatisfied today with the state of the undocumented aliens. The reason is, as we will make clear in this writing, that the problem of immigration has come upon us not because we asked for it, but because a few people saw great profit in it, and where there is an incentive, there is always someone eager to take action, good or bad for all the rest.
As things stand now, everyone is suffering, both the ordinary American people whose resources are indeed being drained endlessly, though they never asked or wanted anymore people in their land, and also the undocumented aliens themselves, who live in a land where they are seen as intruders, and invaders, and where often they are used, and abused, by those who seek to make the greatest profit off their labors and dreams. Many of these people live life in the fringes, and for many, coming to America was more a tragedy than a fantasy come true. They came to a land that in the end did not accept them as anything but intruders, interlopers, and criminals. The vast majority were not hoping for that.
What is clear is that all of these people who are now designated as illegal aliens, or undocumented aliens, have never been really accounted for, and that is the real problem behind the problem. These people have had no special care to process their needs, no real adaptation, and no real conscious effort to assimilate these new comers into our society in earnest for both their benefit, and ours. There has even till this day, even by the best intentioned towards the undocumented aliens, never been a call to make them “Americans” as Americans, and therefore to process them fully and completely into the new land, complete with language and culture. This is a fundamental mistake that if ignored will only result in destruction of the worst kind for all involved. This lack of care and attention has of course had dire consequences on the nation as a whole already, as we can all see. There has been an obvious overuse of our infra-structure, far beyond its intended use, and in general little has been impacted positively. But this can become far worse going forward if nothing is done.
Clearly some reasonable, even if tough solution must be sustained if the nation is to heal properly. It will be painful for all to be sure, but without this sacrifice, nothing good will happen. Only more disturbance, more degeneration of infra-structure, more uncertainty, and very surely more anger and social instability. With the problems we have already, the last thing we need is more instability and division. The nation cannot take any more. The time has come for a solution to the present immigration problem. We cannot afford any more delays. A realistic attitude is absolutely necessary here if we are to go forward. It will not be easy or comfortable for anyone.
The situation as it is now
The nation is entering a critical phase in its development. The United States now has a critical population number and the time for fantasies has come to an end. At 330 million people the United States can no longer afford to think of itself as an expanding nation with the need for more people to work endless reserves of natural resources. The truth is we are now overweight rather than underweight and our natural resources are not enough to satisfy the needs of our existing population. All we need to do is look at the seven hundred billion dollar a year deficit in trade-on average- to understand that we are no longer an underweight nation with more resources than we need. We are an overweight nation that has grown too fat in too few years for our own good, and the last thing we need is to get any fatter.
In fact we really don’t have as yet a good understanding of just how much natural resource we need to import at this population level because we have not fully acknowledged just how many people we actually have living in the United States at this time.
This is especially true since those undocumented aliens who entered the nation over the past thirty years have yet to be processed officially. In reality we don’t even know who these people really are since they have been invisible to the government for most of this time. We do not really know what they do for a living nor how they themselves are adjusting to life in the United States since no official reckoning has been at hand. Thus we know little about them and their actual acclimation to the social order of the United States, and even less as to how much resource they are in need of to maintain a healthy productive life. They are legally “invisible”.
This is a difficult problem, since it makes it hard for us to know just exactly what the state of our nation really is as a whole. To say this is a dangerous situation but not immediately critical would be underestimating the potential for serious problems to materialize quickly and unexpectedly-something that happens after a serious problem has been allowed to go unchecked for a long time. An extremely complex modern nation that does not have a full measure of its population is a nation playing roulette with a partly loaded gun. Any number of developments can result in serious and sudden calamities that can result in catastrophe overnight. But, because these people are now invisible to the law, and because there is much dispute and coercion of facts, we are at present not certain just how large our nation is, nor how it’s behaving in reality, or what the true morphology of this population really is. Yet any well ordered nation must know these things if it is to prosper.
We should understand and admit that the size of a nation is important. How large a nation is, how complex, how dynamic its economy, how dynamic its social structure, how complex its government and regulatory apparatus is to establish the foundation of knowledge concerning that nation’s ultimate function and prognosis. There are a few studies here and there to be sure which ask questions of size and complexity and economy but there is little consensus on how large a nation can become or how long it takes a growing nation to adjust to new growth. We have not as yet really made these questions important in public. We have not yet dared ask the question how large can our nation get before its prosperity is in jeopardy? The assumption is that there are no natural limits, but that’s obviously absurd! Everything has a natural limit given a set of parameters, like population for example, or rate of growth. Yet we stand nowhere near understanding what those limits are in reality.
All we know is that we have grown very large over the past thirty years, mostly due to unregulated immigration. We have little knowledge of who these people really are who make up this extra population in reality since officially they are invisible. All we know is they are there, we see them, we work with them etch. Nor has there been any questions of what exactly is expected of these people. They are there, they will be there, and let’s hope for the best is about the best answer on record. Or an eventual let’s make them legal, or let’s get rid of them. Little in between. But this is absurd. These people are now an integral part of the nation they must be processed somehow. There is really almost no debate on how to acclimate these new-comers as yet, only if they should stay or go, while in reality they have been here for decades, and still keep coming. Yet these are ultimate questions that will determine our viability as a nation going forward.
To make things a little more transparent we might word these questions as follows: How large can a nation become? What are the natural limitations of size? How must the circulation of money work relative to population size? How complex and efficient must the infrastructure be relative to population for a nation to be viable? Specifically these questions must be asked of each nation in question. Is it even possible for the United States to have a population of 330, 340, 350 million people without suffering detrimental structural damage to its fundamental institutions, culture and infra-structure? Were these institutions designed with such population numbers in mind in the first case? All of these questions have really been ignored in the public debate concerning undocumented immigration and therein lies the most serious problem here.
The problem with un-regulated immigration is that no one plans for its ultimate impact.
The real problem with uncontrolled immigration is that there are no pro-active procedures taken to accommodate the new-comers since they are not “expected” or admitted formally in the first place. Therefore, the new-comers that have reached the United States were never planned for, never adjusted for, never was there a calculation taken as to their actual requirements, or impact on the general well being of the public. This is critical. There is really no excuse for this. A nation that simply allows people to enter without taking steps to accommodate and acclimate those new-comers once arrived is playing with its own viability, with its life, and with the life of its citizens. This is especially true of the modern gigantic nations that we see today whose resources are limited by the enormous demands of their citizenry.
Even in ancient days it was well understood that there are limited resources and limited accommodations for any given nation. Yet today, in our own time of extreme technical complexity and maturity of human ideas we have embarked on an unplanned immigration that’s really akin to an unplanned pregnancy for an unwed young girl. No calculus was established for the arrival of all these people in a space of less than three decades, and little to no infra-structure improvements were made. There was as we have already said, no established calculus as to how large or how fast a modern nation can grow in a given space of time. In reality, there was no real objective analysis done on the true impact of such migrations at all. No one seriously asked the question of whether these migrations were actually good for civilization or bad. The truth is they profited large industry and this was enough! But it isn’t enough, as we are now seeing.
Therefore the actual costs of assimilating these new populations was never even considered. No one bothered to ask what impact these new people would have on a nation the size and complexity of the United States. Instead a wink wink policy of legal/illegal immigration was substituted with absolutely no consideration for the ultimate impact on the nation or its people, those already present, or those coming in. The politicians played political paddle ball between the yes and no versions of the immigration issue only to fully cooperate with the captains of industry on the side who were after all their primary political sponsors and without whom the vast majority of politicians stood no chance of being elected at all.
Yet this is an injustice to all involved. This is an injustice to the established population which has had to bear the impact of the new arrivals with no added support or adjustment, and this is an injustice to those people who came here thinking they would have better lives, but who in most cases are living depressed lives marginally adjusted or accepted or accounted for. In the end the receiving nation has mostly been left in a state of disarray because no real adjustments were made for the new comers. Let’s be honest, when East Germany was united with West Germany at first there was a happy party, but then when the costs came up the party died down real fast and rancor soon followed. New populations need new infra-structure, and need a vast expansion of resources. This costs large amounts of money that has to be paid by someone. In most cases this money was never paid, never expended in reality. There was a benefit to a few, but these generally did not assume responsibility for the costs of such expansions, and therein lies the rancor!
The American public is not angry simply because they don’t like other people. They are angry because the impact on their way of life is not being acknowledged and not being accounted for at all. Let’s not simply say that the American people are just racists, or evil, or mean because this is not true. The vast majority are unhappy with the issue for very real reasons. Their way of life has been severely impacted. Their very culture has been impacted and these are real causes for their anger. On the other hand it is not as if much good has happened with the undocumented aliens either in most cases.
Today , there are reports of slavery, child prostitution, and low wage labor among many unfortunate new comers. There are also many homeless aliens who wind up not being able to adjust to life in a new nation where there is no official support system. All this adds to the general lower quality of life for both undocumented aliens as well as the normal population. In most cases the “illegal aliens” are still a phantom people with little to no real legal status. They are, for the most part left on their own, and there too often nothing very beneficial comes out of it in general, although some successes still occur. Yet little else can be expected : they are in fact invisible to the law. For the most part, especially on a federal level, they do not exist. They are “illegal”.
We must first account for the new-comers already here before allowing anymore
The blunt reality is that we have not done anything to process these new comers at all. They are there, they work, they live, they have a significant impact, often significant cultures, but the law says they are not there, do not exist, do not have an impact, and so no new infra-structure or regulation can be made for them. Of course, the popular argument is that they should not be here in the first place! They have according to most no right to be here at all. They came here illegally and without a formal invitation! But if that’s so, why are they still here? If they are invaders, why then did the U.S. government not eject them immediately? Again, this is the fundamental problem. These people have yet to be accounted for at all! This is why they are here, this is why they have become a problem at all. The government has in fact done nothing to stop this migration, and in fact has often actually promoted it, or at least private industry has by giving these people jobs and a way of living, sometimes prospering here. The government has in reality allowed this to happen and we should not in any way be fooled by the intention of the government. The intention was to allow them to come, and it was so from both the Democratic side and the Republican side. Both parties in reality allowed these people to come here, and both sides wanted them here because the power brokers of both parties had a great deal to gain by having them here.
A general principle which is inviolable: A Nation has a right to determine who enters into it.
This is not to excuse the actions of those who came here. Those who came in most cases knew what they were getting into. They knew that the native populations in most cases were not going to be accepting or welcoming, but they came here to struggle on and attain wealth. This cannot be glossed over and should not. It cannot. In their defense it should be noted that the vast majority felt that they were offering their work and if their offer to work was accepted then they should be allowed to stay. Most of those who came knew that the nation was in fact divided, or else compromised. That these individuals sought to exploit that compromise cannot be ignored and must be addressed in any attempt to assimilate and ultimately integrate the new comers into the general society. To ignore the intentions of these people on their way here is to lay down the seeds for endless differences and divisions that will only hurt the nation. The time has come for some reconciliation and an acceptance of responsibility. If we are to accept that a group of people entered this nation on the idea that they were here to take advantage of inherent weaknesses within the nation without reconciliation and some eventual atonement, we open up a whole new level of division that may last for centuries. It will be impossible for the new comers to be assimilated without first acknowledging the breach, and in some way answering for it. If this is not done, then we will introduce a basic division which can only work against the nation, and against the new-comers themselves. This they will have to acknowledge in order for the American people to accept them as legitimate residents eventually. Once this is done, then they can be judged honestly and everyone can go forward. Still the point is that the problem needs a solution immediately and that we have to go forward, this is what is important to everyone.
For as long as there remain unprocessed undocumented aliens in the United States, the government is illegitimate.
Yet when we look at the problem from the highest levels we cannot but affirm that the ultimate failure was with our own government The government of the United States failed. It failed to represent the law as it was and instead played games for the benefit of the few and is now in trouble. The government of the United States, in allowing this problem to grow to these proportions has in fact compromised its authority. There is a question as to whether the government of the United States is at this time legitimate, or worthy of continuing to govern. If the American people were to come to the conclusion that the government now present is itself illegal and illegitimate they would be right and justified. There is no way to justify the breach that was allowed to happen for so many years. A simple law forbidding the hiring or harboring of undocumented aliens could have stopped all this immediately. Such a law was never passed, and never prosecuted. In this respect the government undermined its own legitimacy. The government we have today is compromised for this reason and for as long as this problem remains unsatisfactory in the eyes of the American people. The United States, no matter what anyone might claim, is now a nation without a truly legitimate government and that’s the ultimate danger a nation can face.
One man voiced the situation as follows-if illegal aliens are allowed to break the law, why shouldn’t the rest of us? In effect there is no law, no government no order until such time as this problem is solved. Ignore this, and the nation ignores the immigration problem at its own peril. In reality we are now in a state of instability.
For as long as these people already here are not processed the government of the United States continues to be illegitimate. The government of the United States must first acknowledge they are here, and then begin to treat the problem as needed, as required by Law. In this present state of limbo the American people are in fact given a de facto illegitimate government. It has allowed its borders to be breached and did nothing about it. It has allowed people who are not here lawfully to stay here without in anyway addressing their problems. It has failed in every way to maintain the law of the land and the constitution by so doing. It has repeatedly and insistently failed to represent the American people and for as long as the situation remains unaddressed the situation can only get worse and the illegitimacy of the government ever clearer. This is especially true when there continues to be a breach of the border where the government of the United States is allowing Mexico to collude with aliens further to the South and delivering them to the American border and having the government of the American people fail to insist on stopping this.
If the American people were to conclude under these circumstances that they are not being represented by this government they would be absolutely right. It is the president’s duty to protect our borders; if his administration is failing, or if the congress is failing to make that clear to him through the passage of laws he can enforce, then by implication both are illegitimate. There is no other conclusion possible here. Sooner or later the American people will put two and two together here and act on this. For this reason it is absolutely necessary that the government of the United States immediately act to rectify this problem by first addressing and then assimilating those people already here, since there would be no way of removing them without great turmoil and disruption. The U.S. government must act to stabilize this nation, and restore its immediate authority over its borders, or face a possible revolution and overthrow.
But nothing at all can be done until these people here are fully acknowledged and fully accounted for. That means that everything else must stop until such time as these people are processed and made part of the United States. The government must proclaim its authority and repair whatever inconsistencies that remain concerning the immigration policy and its legal implementation. It must therefore deal with the problem of undocumented aliens already living in the US before it can ever again bring in anymore.
The nation has to assimilate these new comers if it is to go forward
The nation is now a relatively large structure which has so far under-supplied itself when dealing with the extra stress that 330 million people will put upon it. This is why many Americans today are in fact complaining. We have neither the schools, nor the hospitals, nor the roads, nor the cities, nor the jobs, nor the proportional wage distribution, nor the general infrastructure required to house the number of people we have within our borders at present. And contrary to what is sometimes offered, there is no easy way of downsizing our population. There is virtually no chance of becoming a smaller nation, no chance of asking all these people to leave in other words. Those people that are here now, are not likely to leave in any great numbers. Trying to force this issue would of course be catastrophic and quite disruptive in itself and again result in the destabilization of the present government. For this reason the time has come to make certain that the nation adjusts fully to this much larger population than we had in the 1970’s and begin to fully compensate the infrastructure required for this much larger population. But this absolutely and irrevocably demands that nearly all immigration be suspended from this point on with no possibility of amendment until all the present population is fully accounted for and fully processed. That means no new immigration of any kind for decades, until all new stresses as a result of the increased population, and the government failures that allowed this to happen in the first place, have been fully compensated for, and fully corrected!
Undocumented Aliens must first become Temporarily Visible to the law
But before this can happen, before we can begin to assimilate these people we must first acknowledge their existence. We cannot simply say that they are sometimes here and sometimes not. We must know who they are, what they are doing, what must be done in their individual cases, and what pro-active structural changes must be effectuated in order to make the nation productive enough, and able to house these people, or to house that segment of the undocumented population that will be allowed to stay.
This can only be done if these people are made visible to the law by granting a temporary legal status to all of them. Only then can actions be taken concerning their individual status. It will not likely be possible to allow all such people to stay immediately. The reaction from the American people may be unpredictable and volatile and this should be respected. However, once all undocumented aliens are made visible to the law the process of assimilation can begin in earnest.
A general unconditional amnesty is not possible
No one should believe that there will be a general and unconditional amnesty. This is not possible due to the antipathy of the American people. After thirty years of informal entry into the United States too much damage was done to the quality of life for most Americans, as well as to the underlying standard of living. There has been a general shock to the public. The impact has not been a rosy happy go lucky affair in most cases. Unfortunately much crime and disorder, and cultural shock has also come along with the new-comers, as can be expected with any new arrivals and large migrations, but in this case was much amplified and made worse by the lack of fore planning and pre-adjustment required whenever large increases in population are allowed. For many Americans the impact has been a bad one and for this reason there is extreme anger and resentment in many areas. This alone will make it difficult to simply white wash the matter without danger of extreme and fundamental reaction, something this nation cannot afford with a debt of 17-20 trillion dollars already hanging over its head. Whatever solution is offered will have to be a well thought out one, with large concessions made to the American public. The American public will have to be convinced that the solution was both reasonable and justifiable in order for any solution to be successful
It is not possible to forcibly remove the undocumented aliens and Americans should understand that
There will be some who will insist that all these people must be made to leave the second anyone proposes making the aliens visible. But this is impossible and would only result in catastrophic damage. It would involve riots, and violent clashes and tremendous instability would be generated that might well result in a civil war that would send our economy and society to the depths of hell itself. So it is not possible for anyone to seriously ask that all, or most of these people leave. It’s not possible without massive destruction. The only reasonable recourse is to make these people temporarily visible in all cases, while their individual cases are examined in detail. There a general process can be applied to each case individually to the optimum benefit of the nation. Those who have established themselves well and show viability will be allowed to stay. Those that have resorted to crime of course will not. But in the end the vast majority will stay, and will eventually be allowed citizenship, but with the guarantee that there shall not be anymore new immigrants until all the new comers are fully assimilated into American society, and this will take decades. The solution will in fact be final.
There will be a price and this price will involve guarantees that no new illegal aliens will be allowed to work, or live in the United States after the settlement is achieved. Once a temporary legal status is granted to those already here, it will be required for all previously undocumented aliens to have papers in order to work, or rent, or exist in the in the United States. In effect this will close down any new immigration after that. In the end some price must be paid. If not then the situation just continues to get worse.
If the borders are not closed, and if papers for work and rent are not required after the settlement, then the first wave of undocumented aliens will have entered into an unstable situation and will have joined the rest of the American population in full jeopardy of their rights. It would mean that these new Americans would eventually see their jobs taken by yet others, and their standard of living compromised by every new wave of undocumented alien. Why should a company hire a new legalized alien for full pay when it can hire a new illegal alien for half that pay? The problem would get geometrically worse!
As to the American people, if we failed to finally guarantee the sovereignty of their land, then we are in effect expanding the existing problem to ever worse proportions. Forcing the American people to accept all the new comers without some guarantee of later stability and national sovereignty will probably result in a destructive reaction that no one will want to live through. The American people must be satisfied that a price was paid, and that their tax dollars are spent justly, and that what is theirs is theirs and that the law exists and understands that. There is no other way but to close all future unregulated immigration, and severely curtain regulated immigration for decades. There is no other way to solve this problem.
The American people deserve a solution to this problem
Some say that we need specialized labor from abroad, but this is just an attempt to keep the door open towards the erection of a Slave State
Recently a group of wealthy billionaires took to an op ed in the Times where they insisted that the nation needs specialists from abroad and that the nation would suffer without them. The United States produces some of the best trained professionals in the world. There is no nation that has a superior higher education system than our own. It is unreasonable to assume that a much poorer nation can produce a superior system to our own with the relative lack of funds ,experience, and technology. It is also dangerous. We need our professionals to be of the very highest grade and have the most supreme education possible. This can only be achieved in the United States and if for any reason at all this is not happening, then we have a critical problem which must be addressed immediately if this nation is to survive. This is the worst of time for incompetence. This argument proposed by these billionaires will only result in cheaper professional labor for their industries but will not in any way profit the American people. If there is a profession required, the American people easily have the wherewithal to supply that professional requirement given the right incentives. If that requirement is not there, then something terrible is amiss somewhere since we have the most technologically superior civilization on Earth. Something somewhere has been grotesquely corrupted and it should be corrected now. If indeed we are not producing the professionals required, then we must do what must be done to produce them immediately and not resort to importing such requirements.
We must at some point in time begin to understand that all our actions have consequences. We cannot live in a perpetual national fantasy for the benefit of a few people at the top. The illegal immigration phenomenon has profited the few wealthy elements who are the primary owners of business and real estate. In effect the admission of so many aliens unprocessed and unaccounted for has resulted in a severe suppression of wages for the entire population. Wages have consistently failed to register gains in the United States and this has been one reason for the struggling economy. Should these conditions remain unresolved, and if indeed illegal immigration continues to be allowed, we as a nation face the danger of a possible slave state where a few people at the top echelons of society have nearly complete control of the rest. This is not a small danger but a substantial one. There is little question but that money and connection are what run the politics of the United States. As more and more people see lower and lower wage growth, and as the population is diluted in principle and cultural determination, effects which have always been the result of large influxes of new immigrants, there is the danger that only a determined few at the top will have control of the nation. Indeed there are indications that this is the case to a large degree even now. For this reason, the immigration problem must have an ordered proportional solution and the nation will not be able to continue without it.
The reality is that we are a democracy and intend to fully remain a democracy. We have no intention of relinquishing our freedoms, nor are we at any time going to dissipate our individual rights as citizens of the United States so that a few select people at the top can live a privileged life style . Yet, for the past thirty years our rights as a people have in fact been ignored. The nation was allowed to balloon to a population that we were not prepared for, and our standard of living and quality of life had for this reason degenerated in as far as the vast majority of people in our nation are concerned. This failure is due almost solely to the controlling elements at the top of the power structure of our nation. They have allowed for a vague loose immigration policy that suited their own financial, and political needs for more power and prosperity while ignoring the needs of the majority of Americans. The average person’s quality of life, and standard of living has been allowed to grotesquely degenerate so that the few at the highest levels of society could live extravagant lives due to the increased product demand emanating from our unstructured immigration policy. All the while wages have been suppressed due to the availability of cheap labor. Therefore those who held the greatest interest in the economy benefitted wildly while the rest of the population, which is the vast majority, has suffered the consequences. This cannot continue if the United States is to remain a stable nation. If these inefficiencies are not addressed immediately there is almost no question but that instability will very soon erupt and once begun will not be stopped easily. Once a large segment of the population declares its distrust in the government and acts upon this, there will very little that will dissuade that population from returning to normal. This process is probably an imminent event, and the various random shootings are likely the harbinger of things to come if something is not done quickly to take control of a situation that is degenerating by the day.
In the end, the vast majority of new-comers will stay, of this there should be no question, but there will be no others behind them until such time as the nation can actually afford them, or absolutely requires them and these can only be admitted legally and under strict regulation. This will take many decades of assimilating the present group and at some tremendous costs.
When everything is done however, these new comers will have become part of the American nation and be fully integrated and prosperous. The road might be hard won, but in the end there will be success, assuming the sovereignty of the nation is ultimately acknowledged and defended.
No Unilateral action by the President on this issue
It should be added that there has been talk of Obama taking unilateral executive action concerning the immigration problem. This could be suicidal. The American people are going to have to understand what happened, and are going to have to be convinced that this was a just solution that is ultimately in their interest and especially in the interest of the nation going forward. The president can not accomplish this task alone. He may believe the media will assist him in his effort to convince the American people that the right thing was done. But, there is tremendous distrust of the media, and the media cannot be relied upon to convince anyone of the justice of this particular executive action. There will be a reaction and this could make a bad situation much worse very quickly, especially since once again the economy is not well. The American people are largely uncertain of the nation going forward, adding this kind of executive action to a critical problem like this can only make the citizenry even more apprehensive and more likely to act up.
The best course of action is for the congress to take the matter up in January of 2015. Then a newly elected congress can begin to plot a just course of action for the issue of immigration. This can be finished before the end of 2015 and thus take any pressure off the next election cycle. The congress must be careful to understand that any solution will require that the American people are compensated and that they accept that compensation as just and that in the end it is best for the nation as a whole, and that it is especially good for the future of the nation. Only the congress has the true authority to pass such a law, and the president should respect that in order to avoid further lack of confidence in government and a resulting instability.